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Media & Sponsorship Glossary - under construction

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A/B copy
Facility offered by certain national newspapers whereby different advertisements are printed in alternate issues of the paper.

Often used to test the effectiveness of different creative approaches, egs couponed versus non-couponed, different headlines, etc.

Typically incurs a 10% rate premium.

Shortened version of 'advertising expenditure'.

Can be used in connection with expenditure by one, many or all advertisers.

Has technical overtones when used in advertising research, eg tracking studies.

Either (i) the expected effect on a variable (such as awareness) of recent advertising activity (in the TV market, usually expressed in ratings) or (ii) calculations of future effects, allowing an amount for the decay of effects produced.

Originally the brand and product name of a company specialising in providing mobile poster sites, ie poster panels affixed to vans, which are driven and displayed as required by advertisers who book space on them.

The expression has taken on a more generic meaning (cf. biro) to describe any such mobile poster facility.

Advertising:editorial ratio (also "ad:ed" ratio)
The ratio of advertising to editorial pages in a print medium, eg 60:40 would indicate 60 per cent of all pages are advertising.

Hybrid advertisement feature in which advertising and editorial material are combined to mimic a medium's editorial style.

Advertorials may be produced either by the publication or by the advertiser, but will normally come under close scrutiny by the medium in question to ensure that its editorial control and/or integrity is not being compromised.

The expression is normally applied to features in newspapers and magazines but might also be valid in the context of other media, eg in commercial radio where an advertiser was allowed to produce an advertisement that took the form of a mini-programme.

Not to be confused with 'advertisement feature', however: the creators of an advertorial will normally seek to convince the target audience (even if only at first glance or at first hearing) that the advertisement is in fact a piece of editorial.

Ambient media are found in the "surroundings" (the dictionary definition of the word is "surrounding, circumfused"). Generally referred to as 'out-of-home' media.

Most media not included in the classic TV, press, poster, radio, cinema, direct mail and 'new' media definitions can be consigned to this category.

Examples would be advertisements on dripmats, eggs, football goal nets, litter bins and restaurant serviettes.

Ambush marketing
Sponsorship tactic in which a company or companies which is/are not sponsors of a sponsored event attempt to capitalise on it via actions which suggest that they are sponsors of it.

Analogue broadcasts are transmitted using radio waves of various lengths and various frequencies.

Analogue can be contrasted with digital, whereby signals are compressed and may be encoded prior to transmission.

Media planning/market research expression often applied adjectivally to media which reflect the lifestyle aspirations of a particular consumer group.

Thus young homeowners may read magazines which reflect the lifestyles which they would like one day to experience; young male readers of a motoring magazine featuring fast cars may read it because they earnestly desire one day to own such a vehicle.

The Astra satellites 1a, 1b and 1c transmit the majority of English language TV stations.

Sky TV has been broadcasting via Astra since February 1989.


Satellite TV guide.

Audit, media
A media audit consists of an assessment of the effectiveness of media planning and/or buying, normally involving comparison with similar or competitive campaigns.

It can be conducted in various ways, and measurements may be made against a variety of criteria. Most typically, a third party specialist media audit company will make comparisons between the cost-efficiency of an advertiser's TV or press campaign and data collected about market averages (eg SAP).

Average frequency
The average frequency achieved by an advertising campaign is an expression of the average number of times a particular campaign or advertisement will be seen or heard by an individual in the selected target audience for the campaign.

In visual media, the expression is synonymous with "average opportunity-to-see" (OTS) and in radio with "average opportunity-to-hear" (OTH).

If gross rating points and net coverage are calculated for a campaign, the average frequency can be calculated by dividing the ratings by the net coverage, eg for a 300 TVR campaign which is seen by 75% of Adults, the average frequency is 300/75 = 4.0.

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Describes a poster display in which the advertising message is illuminated from behind with fluorescent bulbs. Posters used in such displays are often printed on translucent plastic.

A banner is an advertising space which is considerably wider than it is deep.

The expression is used most commonly to describe certain poster sites at transport termini and graphic advertisements of a similar shape on internet websites.

Generally, the exchange of goods and services without the use of cash; in the media market, the acquisition of media time or space in exchange for merchandise.

A facility for extending the area covered by a press advertisement to the very edge of the page on which it is printed.

The area can include the 'gutter', the area closest to the spine of the publication.

A charge of 5-10% is often shown on rate cards but nowadays this is most often waived

Broadband or wideband cable systems consist of coaxial and fibre optic cables which have a very large capacity and can carry a wide range of TV channels (eg 30 or more) and other services (such as telephony and security services) simultaneously.

Importantly, they also carry 'return' signals, which allow users to partake of interactive services, such as online shopping, banking, etc.

National or local/regional newspaper which is approximately 56cms in depth, compared with the 36cms depth of 'tabloids'.

In the national press sector, the broadsheet format is used nowadays used exclusively by quality ('upmarket') newspapers.

A short, concentrated advertising campaign. Most often, though not exclusively, applied to TV and radio.

Expression describing a type of advertising campaign or medium by means of which businesses communicate with other businesses.

This type of advertising contrasts with consumer advertising, as the prime targets of business-to-business media and campaigns are companies or individuals with certain responsibilities within companies.

There are a number of major sub-categories of business-to-business advertising, including corporate, announcement, sales support and lead generation, although some commentators have suggested that corporate advertising should not be regarded as a form of business-to-business.

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Cancellation date
One of the terms of business of most media, whereby a space or airtime booking must be cancelled on or before a certain fixed date or time period before the appearance or transmission of an advertisement.

If an advertiser wishes to cancel his booking, he must do so by the cancellation date; otherwise the media owner will normally be entitled to run the ad. or impose a premium for cancelling it. Note that in some cases bookings made after the cancellation date is passed become non-cancellable immediately at the time of booking.

Case rate
A method for setting advertising budgets (also known as 'per case allowance') according to which a fixed sum for advertising is arrived at based on a forecast of unit sales over the next year.

For an excellent account of other methods and other aspects of budget setting, see Simon Broadbent, The Advertising Budget, (Henley-on-Thames: NTC Publications Ltd., 1989).

The circulation of a publication is the number of copies it sells or distributes within a fixed time period.

When assessing the circulation of a publication, media planners attach a value to whether copies of publications are free or paid for, or have a circulation which is a mix of free and paid for distribution.

They are also interested in whether the title's circulation has been audited by an industry body such as ABC or BPA International or by independent auditors. Depending on the sector, analysis of circulations may be broken down into a variety of complex sub-categories by the auditing company.

Bulk sales in national press are regarded currently as a particularly contentious issue.


Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).

Cluster analysis
A statistical technique that identifies groups of consumers whose characteristics are highly correlated within each cluster grouping and relatively uncorrelated between clusters.

Cluster analysis is typically applied to lifestyle characteristics to facilitate the development of a 'bespoke' profile of a marketplace which offers a more 'human' visualisation of consumer groupings than is available via standard industry market research surveys.


This commercial American site gives some further information -


Coffee time
Commercial airtime daypart, with slots scheduled for late morning, loosely defined as being from about 11.00am to noon.

Controlled circulation
The circulation of a publication that is sent free and addressed to specified individuals.


Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).

The Registrar General identifies eight major population centres as conurbations, namely Greater London (12.4% of GB population), West Midlands (inc. Birmingham, Dudley, Coventry, Walsall and Wolverhampton - 4.6% of GB), Greater Manchester (inc. Manchester, Wigan, Stockport, Bolton and Salford - 4.5% of GB), West Yorkshire (inc. Leeds, Bradford and Kirklees - 3.7% of GB), Central Clydeside (inc. Glasgow City and Motherwell - 2.8% of GB), Merseyside (inc. Liverpool, Wirral and Sefton - 2.5% of GB), South Yorkshire (inc. Sheffield and Doncaster - 2.3% of GB) and Tyne & Wear (inc. Sunderland and Newcastle upon Tyne - 2.0% of GB).

In total, the conurbations account for 34.8% of the population of Great Britain.


Office for National Statistics (ONS).

Conversion factor
A percentage applied to a number (eg an Adult TV rating to obtain a different number (eg a Women 15-34 rating).

Corporate campaign
A corporate advertising campaign addresses general company objectives and targets a broad audience, rather than focussing on specific sales or awareness requirements.

Its intention may be to correct a misapprehension about the company or to head off possible future problems by building positive attitudes; alternatively, it may seek to build knowledge about the range of products or services which the company offers or simply provide a backdrop against which other more specialised campaigns can operate.

Media selection tends to be horizontal.

Cost-per-thousand is a way in which cost-efficiency can be expressed.

It is a measure of audience delivered per unit of cost (eg a TV spot costing 1000 seen by 100,000 housewives delivers a cost-per-thousand of 1000/100 = 10.00). It is typically used in inter- or intra-media comparisons of cost-efficiency (usually abbreviated to 'cpt' - 'cpm' in some countries).

Audiences may be general (eg 'All housewives') or highly specific (eg 'C1C2 males aged 15-44 who are regular readers of the Daily Telegraph').

Cost rank
A ranking of media according to an estimate or measurement of their comparative cost-efficiency, usually measured in terms of costs-per-thousand, in reaching a specific target audience.

Cost-effectiveness is a measure or expression of the extent to which some advertising activity has achieved its goals, per unit cost.

The measure may be absolute ('it cost this to achieve that') or relative ('it only cost this to achieve that, compared with this, using this other medium/method').

Cost-effectiveness should not be confused with cost-efficiency.

Cost-efficiency is a comparative measure of audience delivered per unit of cost (eg a TV spot costing 1000 seen by 100,000 housewives delivers a cost-per-thousand of 1000/100 = 10.00). It is typically used in inter- or intra-media comparisons of costs-per-thousand (usually abbreviated to 'cpt' - 'cpm' in some countries).

Audiences may be general (eg 'All housewives') or highly specific (eg 'C1C2 males aged 15-44 who are regular readers of the Daily Telegraph').

Cover or Coverage
An ad. campaign's coverage level (also known as its 'reach') is an expression of the extent to which it is viewed or heard by the specified target audience.

The figure can be expressed in gross or net terms.

Gross coverage is the grand total of times the campaign is seen or heard, expressible either as impressions or as a percentage of the size of the target audience (in ratings),


if the universe size is 10,000 Women and the number of times the campaign is seen/heard by that audience is 40,000, then the gross coverage level is 40,000 impressions or 400 Women ratings.

Net coverage is the number or percentage of the target audience who see or hear it,


in the example above, if only 8,000 of the audience universe had actually registered the 40,000 impressions, net coverage would be 8,000 or 80%.

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Broadcast time period (segment), eg daytime 10:00am to 4:00pm. Often applied to segments which are used by TV companies in allocating rates to different parts of the day - but there are no generally agreed exact definitions by time period.

Digital transmission technology has a very wide range of applications in broadcast media, video, telephony, computing, etc.

In TV, it facilitates more efficient use of transmission frequencies (more channels for a given bandwidth), unlike its predecessor, PAL, which was analogue.

Digital signals can be encrypted and compressed. The technology offers enhanced picture quality and improved sound quality for both TV and radio services.




Direct response
Pertaining to promotional media activity that permits or requests consumers to directly respond to the advertiser by post, telephone, e-mail or some other means of communication.

Display advertisements in press media are distinguished from classified advertisements by the fact that they are not printed in a special section of the publication, under a heading or 'classification'. See also 'semi-display' and 'linage'.

The term 'display' is also often used in connection with outdoor advertising, eg 'a three month display of four-sheets'.

Double crown
Poster size in portrait shape, the equivalent of a quarter of the size of a 4 sheet.

Drive time
The morning and afternoon hours of radio broadcasting - "morning drive" is generally agreed as being 0600-1000am, "afternoon drive" as 1500-1900pm.

Direct Response TV.

'Digital Terrestrial Television': digital television which is delivered via a normal rooftop aerial.

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Effective frequency
The average number of opportunities-to-see the advertising message which is considered to achieve the media objective set for the advertising campaign.

Abbreviation for Early Right Hand Page, an advertisement position in a publication regarded by many advertisers as more effective than later or left hand positions. It is therefore often (though not always) sold at a premium.

'Early' is generally recognised to signify 'in the front half of the publication'.

Establishment Survey
An audience research report which 'establishes' the size and demographic composition of the population within a particular broadcast transmission area.

It is typically updated on an annual basis.

An opportunity-to-see an advertisement.

A website which carries advertising and is either (a) an online version of an existing press or broadcast medium, (b) a compilation of online equivalents of a number of different media or (c) a 'magazine'-type medium which is found only on the internet.

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4 sheet
See poster sizes.

48 sheet
See poster sizes.

Abbreviation for Facing Matter, a press advertisement position which faces editorial text ('matter'), regarded by many advertisers as more effective than positions which face other advertisements. It is therefore often (though not always) sold at a premium.

A local newspaper which is distributed free-of-charge, usually weekly.

The number of occasions on which a member of a target group is exposed to an advertising message during an ad. campaign.

See 'average frequency' and 'effective frequency'.

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Multi-page press advertisement, typically on heavier weight paper than the rest of the publication, which consists of pages which are joined together, normally at left and/or right edges (though vertical gatefolds are not unheard-of) and open out to produce a large format which is much wider than it is deep.

A census-based classification system used in media and product target marketing. Geo-demographic classifiers such as A.C.O.R.N., Mosaic and Super Profiles (amongst others) cross-tabulate household census data with data on the consumption of goods and services. Using techniques such as cluster analysis, they are able to produce multi-segmented analyses of consumption of these products and services. Such analyses are considerably more detailed than most other targeting systems and are often used in direct marketing programmes, the siting of store outlets, poster campaigns, etc.


C.A.C.I. (for A.C.O.R.N.)

G.H.I. or G.H.R.
Guaranteed Home Impressions or Guaranteed Home Ratings packages are selections of TV spots offered to advertisers on the basis that the seller of the airtime guarantees that the predicted audience level will be delivered.

A printing process (often used to produce high quality colour) that uses an etched printing cylinder.

An adjective indicating that a particular total (eg of viewings or expenditure) includes the totality of units which are included within it, without regard to duplication.

See also 'net'.

A Gross Rating Point is one percentage point of a specified target audience. Total GRPs for a campaign can be calculated by the formula 'Reach times average frequency'. This is a measure of the advertising weight delivered by a medium or media within a given time period. A given total of gross rating points may be arrived at by adding together ratings from many different spots. GRPs may, thus, sum to more than 100% of the total target audience.

An expression normally associated with the press space market. An undertaking by either the buyer or seller to deliver an agreed condition of the contract

eg in the case of a seller

to position an ad. on a specified page, or

in the case of the buyer

not to use other media for a particular campaign.

In press media, that part of a printed page which is closest to the spine of a publication, outside the normal area of 'live matter'. Advertisements will sometimes be 'bled into the gutter', meaning that their printed area will extend into the gutter (to ensure the contiguity of two sides of a double page spread, for instance).

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Half tone
A method of reproducing a black and white photograph or illustration by representing various shades of grey as a series of black and white dots.

A three-dimensional photograph or illustration, created with an optical process that uses lasers.

Either one person living alone or a group of people, usually, though not necessarily, members of the same family, who live together and manage their food and living expenses as a unit.

Member of a private household who takes main or primary responsibility for household duties (eg shopping, meal preparation, etc.). Thus housewives may be female or male.

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A short 'sponsor identification' film shown at the beginning and end of a section of a TV programme, used to credit the sponsor with sponsorship of the programme.

Two meanings:

(i) extent to which a particular advertisement is noticed by viewers or listeners; or

(ii) specifically, one discrete exposure to an advertisement (in this instance, a synonym of 'impression').

See 'Impact' above.

A number indicating a change in magnitude relative to the magnitude of some other number (the base), taken as representing 100. A 110 index indicates a 10 percent positive change in magnitude; a 90 index a 10 percent negative change.

Long, information-rich television advertisement - format often used in DRTV commercials and on shopping channels.

The broadcast equivalent of an advertorial.

An advertisement, collection of advertisements or other promotional matter produced by an advertiser or group of advertisers, to be included in a magazine or newspaper as a separate item (ie not printed as part of the body of the publication, but put into in a separate process). It may be bound into the publication or be inserted loose, without binding.

Costs are usually calculated on a 'per 1,000' basis and are typically variable according to the weight and size of the insert.

Island site
A press advertisement site which is completely surrounded by editorial material.

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Prefix of acronyms standing for "Joint Industry Committee", in research studies such as JICREG (regional press readership) and JICNARS (national press readership).

Joint Photographic Experts Group. An internet standard for compression algorithms for digitizing still photographic images. JPEG compression ratios may range from 10:1 to 80:1, but this involves a continuous trade-off between image quality and speed of delivery and storage capacity.

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Printing expression referring to the spacing between the letters of a word. Of importance, for instance, in double page spread advertisements in which headlines cross the gutters of the pages on which the ad. is printed.

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Lead Time
Usually, period of time before advertisement appears which gives last date for supply of copy material (also known as 'copy date') or by which booking of space or airtime should be actioned ('booking lead time').

A printing method that stamps ink onto paper, using raised lettering.

Abbreviation for Left Hand Page.

Life cycle, lifestage
Lifestyle analysis system based on the concept that people have different aspirations and tastes at different stages of their lives: life cycle groups might include 'Dependent', 'Empty Nesters', 'Pre-family'. There are various proprietary systems which take this general form.

Poster site, most often a 4- or 6-sheet, which is 'back-illuminated'. Posters used in this type of site normally have to be printed on special material, eg vinyl.

Type of classified advertisement in a newspaper, consisting of lines of bold and plain type only, un-'boxed' and with no embellishments such as logos, illustrations, etc.

See also 'display' and 'semi-display'.

List broker
In direct mail campaign planning, an agent who sells lists of sales prospects, classified into groupings.

A printing method in which the printing and non-printing areas exist on the same plane, as opposed to a bi-leveled reproduction.

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Editorial content of a newspaper or magazine.

An advertisement site which covers the whole area of the back of a double-deck bus. Normally such advertisements are painted onto the vehicles.

Socio-demographic term primarily applied to people, products, services, campaigns or media which fall into, or have a bias towards, the C1 or C2 social grade grouping.

See 'popular' and 'quality'.

Type of poster site which consists of a pole-shaped structure; this type of site often rotates, for added impact.

Large cinema complex, typically offering a dozen or more screen choices, together with other forms of entertainment.

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96 sheet
See poster sizes.

Using a broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests. For example, a specialist computing channel would be a narrowcast, because it appeals to an audience with a specific interest.

Two meanings: (i) abbreviation for 'internet',


(ii) an adjective indicating that a particular total (eg of viewings or expenditure) may not include the totality of units which are included within it, as allowance is made for duplication.

See also 'gross'.

Near Video On Demand.

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Objective and task
Method of setting media budgets based on the cost of achieving the designated goals.

See also 'case rate'.

Any airtime which is not peak airtime.

O.T.H. or O.T.S.
Opportunity-To-Hear or Opportunity-To-See: one exposure to an advertisement message.

However, the expression is most often used in combination with adjectives such as 'average' and 'gross'.

'Gross O.T.S' or 'gross O.T.H.' is an expression of the total number of exposures to a campaign. 'Average O.T.H.' or 'average O.T.S.' is calculated by dividing the gross number of exposures (or gross O.T.S.) to a campaign by the net number of the target group (net coverage) exposed to it.

Generic name for external poster advertising.

Advertisement sales material which is attached to and encompasses the outer covers of a press publication.

Additional copies of a publication or other printed material that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution. Overruns are typically produced to meet additional needs or unexpected demand, or sometimes in the context of compensation.

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Pre-selected list (eg of TV or radio spots or poster sites).

Page dominance
Extent to which a press advertisement fills a page.

Page traffic
May be used either formally, as in a researched measurement of the percentage of a group who claim to have seen a particular page, or, informally, an expression used in connection with estimates of the number of readers of a particular page.

Total number of pages included in a press publication.

Conventional flat poster site; may or may not be illuminated.

Pass-on readership
Readers who become familiar with a publication without having purchased it (purchaser-readers are called 'primary readers').

These readers are taken into account when calculating the total number of readers of a publication.

Payment by results - typically used, for instance, in connection with DRTV campaigns.


Peak time
TV rate card daypart/segment which defines the period of the broadcasting day during which the highest rates will be charged. Also used as informal shorthand for evening time.

(Note peak audiences for radio are in the morning and the segment is known as 'prime time').

Perfect bound
Binding process used in magazines where the spine of the publication is glued and flattened (also known as 'square bound'). The commonest alternative is the 'stapled' or 'saddle-stitched' binding method.

Piggy-back offer
Direct mail offer which is included free with another offer.

Socio-demographic term primarily applied to newspapers whose readership profile has a bias towards the C2, D and E social grade groupings.

See 'mid-market' and 'quality'.

Poster sizes
The chart below provides the names and dimensions of the most popular poster sizes used in the UK.

Sales process used principally in television advertising by which buyers can out-bid previous purchasers for a particular spot, according to the pre-empt rate card structure printed on the medium's rate card, until the 'top of the rate card' level is reached.

A term that describes consumers or a targeted group on the basis of psychological characteristics. These are determined by standardised tests to produce an agreed segmentation which can be related to media and product usage, for predictive purposes.

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Quad crown
Poster size in landscape format, equivalent in size to half that of a 4 sheet. Most commonly used by film/cinema advertisers on the London Underground.

Socio-demographic term primarily applied to newspapers whose readership profile has a bias towards the A or B social grade groupings.

See 'mid-market' and 'popular'.

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One percentage point of a specified audience. Commonly used only in connection with broadcast media.

See 'T.V.R.'.

Response function
Measure of response to an advertisement or a campaign. Typically used as a generalisation, but (especially in carefully measured direct response campaigns) can refer to a mathematical factor relating investment to return.

Right Hand Page.

Return On Investment.

Run Of Paper - signifying that an advertisement booked thus may appear in any position within the publication (ie is not guaranteed to appear in any specific position).

Run Of Week

- an ad. booked on this basis may appear on any day of the specified week.

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6 sheet
See poster sizes. A 'Super 6 sheet' is offered by Mills & Allen in London, 2.25 times larger than a standard 6 sheet and limited in availability to one pre-selected campaign.

16 sheet
See poster sizes.

Station Average Price

- calculation of the average 30" cost-per-thousand for a specified audience group, obtained by dividing total station revenue by total relevant ratings achieved, over a specified time period.

This value is the basis of much of the UK's planning and buying of TV campaigns.

Direct mail material in which no envelope is required for mailing.

Classified newspaper advertisement which contains not just linage but also a logo and/or other illustrative material; but positioned amongst other ads. grouped together according to 'classifications'.

See also 'linage'.

The theory of symbols and signs which explores how people glean meaning from words, sounds, and pictures. Sometimes used in researching names for various products and services.

Can be relevant in media planning where the nature of the medium may be thought semiotically significant

Share of audience
Percentage of selected audience which is tuned to a particular medium at a given time, e.g. the proportion of the target group who are watching a particular TV channel between the hours of 7:30 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.

Share of voice
Share of total adspend accounted for by an advertiser or group of advertisers within a defined market sector over a specified time period.

Satellite Master Antenna Television is a TV receiving system based on a communal receiving aerial, signals typically being distributed to homes within a multi-occupancy building.

Spot colour
The technique of adding colour (usually a single colour) to some areas of black-and-white advertisements.

Two meanings: either

(i)an assessment of the extent to which the weight of an ad. campaign is evenly distributed across specified regions, target audiences or a specified time period, or

(ii) a shortened form of 'double page spread'.

Strip scheduling
Programme timing technique employed by some television stations whereby the same (or very similar) programmes begin and end at the same time each day.

Banner shaped bus-side poster site, most often situated on the nearside of the bus, to be seen by a pedestrian audience.

Poster site which is larger than a 96 sheet.

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32 sheet
See poster sizes.

12 sheet
See poster sizes.

Newspaper format which is approximately 34cms deep by 26cms wide.

See also broadsheet.

Tear sheet
Cutting from a magazine or newspaper which is sent to the advertiser as proof that the ad. has appeared or that colour reproduction is of the required standard.

Single advertisement or advertising campaign aimed at arousing interest and curiosity.

Use of telephone as a medium to sell, promote or take orders for goods and/or services.

The expressions 'inbound' and 'outbound' are often applied to distinguish between selling and order-taking.

Tracking study
Expression used by some to describe extended awareness-only surveys, which provide regular data at fixed intervals.

More commonly applied to surveys which incorporate movements in awareness, selling price, attitude measures, sales data, etc., preferably all reported at regular common fixed intervals and all related to the deployment of media advertising weight/funds.

Trim size
Size of a magazine or newspaper after its pages have been printed and trimmed.

Television Rating. One TVR = 1% of a specified target audience group. A sum total of TVRs represents a gross total of individual viewings expressed as a percentage of the 'universe' of that particular audience group,


say there are 1,210,000 Adults aged 15-34 in a particular TV area (ie that is the Adults 15-34 universe),

then a level of 54 ratings would equate to 54% of 1,210,000 = 653,400 viewings (usually called 'impressions' or 'impacts').

A level of 250 ratings would equate to 3,025,000 impressions. Note that these viewings will also include duplication (clearly the maximum audience is 100%). If these gross impressions were experienced by only 75% (907,500) of the Adults 15-34 universe, then

3,025,000 gross impressions

experienced by

907,500 Adults 15-34

means that the average opportunity-to-see for this group was 3,025,000/907,500 = 3.33.

TVRs are a useful shorthand, reducing all calculations to percentages. Here, we would divide 250 TVRs by 75% coverage to get our OTS of 3.33.

But the 'thousands' values are required in the calculation of costs-per-thousand.

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Usage and Attitude study - major research study which incorporates factors such as product purchase, usage, attitudes and awareness and may also incorporate media exposure data.

Unique cover
Pertaining to audience coverage which is achieved by using specific media or advertising units (commonly TV spots) only. The omission of the specified units would result in a fall in net coverage, so their contribution to coverage-building is 'unique'.

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Vertical publications
Publications in which editorial content covers a specific industry, e.g., Engineering magazine.

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Video On Demand.

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The proportion of an ad. campaign's expenditure or advertising weight which is not seen or heard by the specified target audience.

Wave machine
Type of poster site in which the whole display is changed at regular short intervals (eg every ten seconds) by rotation of (usually vertical) slats, to which different advertisements (usually for different products) are applied.

An expression of the 'amount' of advertising planned or already exhibited. Usually referred to for comparison purposes and often using unit measures, eg TVRs.

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